Wisconsin (/wɪˈskɒnsɪn/ (listen)) is a state in the upper Midwestern United States, bordered by Minnesota to the west; Iowa to the southwest; Illinois to the south; Lake Michigan to the east; Michigan to the northeast; and Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 23rd-largest state by total area and the 20th-most populous.
Three of its largest cities are situated on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan, these include the largest, Milwaukee, as well as Green Bay and Kenosha, the third and fourth most populated Wisconsin cities respectively. The state capital, Madison, is currently the second most populated and fastest growing city in the state. Wisconsin is divided into 72 counties and as of the 2020 census had a population of nearly 5.9 million.
Wisconsin’s geography is diverse, having been greatly impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area. The Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is third to Ontario and Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. The northern portion of the state is home to the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest.
At the time of European contact the area was inhabited by Algonquian and Siouan nations, and today is home to eleven federally recognized tribes. During the 19th and early 20th centuries many European settlers entered the state, most of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Wisconsin remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.